Zaščitna arheološka izkopavanja v Mengšu

Protective archeological excavation in Mengeš


 
Dne 22. 10. 2001 je Muzej Mengeš s pooblastilom ZVNKD Kranj pričel nadzorovati strojni izkop za komunalno infrastrukturo na Maistrovi in Zadružniški ulici v Mengšu. V preteklih desetletjih so namreč prebivalci, stanujoči na Zadružniški in tudi Slomškovi ulici, pri gradnji hiš ob posegih v zemljo večkrat naleteli na arheološke ostanke. Večina jih žal ni strokovno evidentiranih in le nekaj predmetov je našlo svojo pot v Muzej Kamnik, ki je bil takrat pristojen za to območje.

Na podlagi teh podatkov smo na Maistrovi in Zadružniški ulici upravičeno pričakovali nove najdbe in 13. 11. 2001 smo res naleteli na žgani, sicer slabo ohranjen grob. Najdbe grobov so si potem hitro sledile: v štirih dneh smo pred uničenjem rešili skupaj štiri žgane grobove, zato smo se z investitorjem in izvajalcem del dogovorili o povečanju strokovne ekipe in o izvedbi zaščitnega izkopavanja na severovzhodnem delu Zadružniške ulice. Izkopavali smo na območju, dolgem približno 70 m in širokem tri do štiri metre; 40 do 50 cm debelo nasutje za asfalt je bilo odstranjeno strojno, nato pa smo kopali ročno oziroma strojno do arheoloških plasti.

Dne 26. 11. 2001 smo našli skeletni grob št. 5. Okostje, ohranjeno razmeroma slabo, je ležalo na trebuhu, leva roka je bila rahlo skrčena ob telesu, leva noga pa iztegnjena. Lobanja je ležala postrani, z levo stranjo spodaj. Lepo se je videl obris grobne jame. Orientacija skeleta je le rahlo odstopala od smeri S–J, glava je bila na S. Grob je bil kakih 105 cm pod nivojem ulice. Pri nadaljnjem izkopavanju smo naleteli tudi na pridatke: na vzhodni steni pri glavi smo našli del jelenovega parožka, železni nož, pasni privesek, lepo okrašen koščeni glavnik in bronasto pasno spono. V predelu medenice, prav tako na vzhodni strani, smo našli manjšo bronasto spono, pri stegnenici pa železni predmet (mogoče ključ). Antropološka analiza je pokazala, da je bil v grobu pokopan moški, star najverjetneje okoli 25 let, njegova telesna višina pa je bila med 165 in 170 cm.

Do 7. 12. 2001 smo izkopali vsega 16 grobov, 4 skeletne in 12 žarnih. Skeletni grob št. 5 po vsej verjetnosti sodi v čas po letu 600 po Kr., glede na parožek pa domnevamo, da gre za grob avarskega vojščaka. Predvidevamo, da tudi preostali trije skeletni grobovi sodijo v ta čas. V grobu št. 13 je bil pokopan 2 do 3 leta star otrok, v grobu št. 10 najverjetneje ženska, stara okoli 25 let, grob št. 16 pa je bil tako poškodovan, da spola ni bilo mogoče ugotoviti. Grobova št. 13 in 16 sta bila brez pridatkov, pri okostju iz groba št. 10 pa smo našli železni predmet (bržkone žebelj) in tri fragmente živalskih kosti; pri enem fragmentu gre po vsej verjetnosti za školjko.

Žgani grobovi so starejši in datirajo vsaj v starejšo železno dobo, mogoče pa celo že v pozno KŽG. Bolje ohranjene posode smo našli samo v grobu št. 7 (latvica in posoda s cilindričnim ustjem) in grobu št. 12 (bikonična posoda). Ostanki posod so bili najdeni še v grobovih št. 1 (dno posode in v njej manjša latvica), št. 2 (močno fragmentirana posoda) in št. 14 (bikonična posoda).

Zaradi slabih vremenskih razmer (sneg, –10 stopinj C) smo dela na tem območju začasno ustavili, v nadaljevanju pa nameravamo pregledati zahodno polovico Zadružniške in spomladi še Zoranino ulico.

Gregor Štibernik
Karta Evrope / Map of EuropeKarta Slovenije / Map of SloveniaPodročje izkopavanj / Area of an excavationGrob 5 / Grave no. 5
Detajl groba 5 / Detail of grave no. 5Pridatki groba 5 / Finds of grave no. 5Koščen glavnik / Bone combDel jelonovega parožka / Part of a stag tine
Pasni privesek / A belt pendantBronatsa pasna spona / A bronze belt buckle

October 22nd, 2001, the Institute for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage, Regional Office in Kranj, authorized the Mengeš Museum to initiate supervision over machine excavation for the municipal infrastructure on Maistrova and Zadružniška streets in Mengeš. In past decades, inhabitants living on Zadružniška and Slomškova streets have many a time happened upon archeological remains during various house-building efforts. Unfortunately, the majority of items are not documented; only a select few articles found their way to the Kamnik Museum, which formerly had jurisdiction over this area. 

Based on these data and prior to the commencement of the above stated construction efforts, new finds were anticipated. A poorly preserved cremation grave was thus discovered on November 13th, 2001. Grave goods promptly followed. In four days, four cremation graves were documented prior to their excavation. Consequently, the investors and excavators together settled to augment the professional team, which would then carry out rescue excavations at the northeastern section of Zadružniška Street. Excavations were carried out over an area measuring approximately 70 m long and 3-4 m wide. A 40-50 cm thick layer of road metal was removed by machine, upon which further excavation was carried out manually, and occasionally also by machine, through the archeological layers. 

The inhumation grave no. 5 was discovered on November 26th, 2001. The skeleton lay face down, the left arm was slightly contracted alongside the body and the left leg was extended. The skull lay sideways with the left side down. The outline of the grave pit was clearly visible. The skeleton was relatively poorly preserved. The skeleton lay oriented on the north – south axis, with a slight deviation, and the head facing north. The grave was situated approximately 105 cm below the level of the street. Further excavation lead to other finds: part of a stag tine was discovered along the eastern wall by the skull, as well as an iron knife, a belt pendant, a carefully ornamented bone comb and a bronze belt buckle. Proximate to the pelvis, also along the eastern wall, was also a smaller bronze buckle, and near the thighbone an iron article (possibly a key). The anthropological analysis revealed that the deceased was a male, most likely around 25 years of age and that his height ranged between 165 and 170 cm.

A total of 16 graves were excavated by December 7th, 2001: four inhumation and 12 cremations. Inhumation grave no. 5 is most likely attributed to the period after 600 AD, the stag tine characterizing it as the grave of an Avar soldier. The other three inhumation graves presumably also pertain to the same period. The deceased in grave no. 13 was a 2-3 year old child; grave no. 10 was probably that of an approximately 25-year-old female, and grave no. 16 was too damaged to be determined by gender. Graves no. 13 and 16 lacked any grave goods, while an iron object (probably a nail) and three fragments of animal bones were found alongside the skeleton in grave no. 10. 

The cremation graves were dated earlier, to the Early Iron Age at least and possibly even the Late Urnfield Cemetery period. Well preserved vessels were discovered only in graves no. 7 (a small dish and a vessel with a cylindrical lip) and no. 12 (a bi-conical vessel). Pottery fragments were also found in graves no. 1 (the base f a vessel and a smaller dish within it), no. 2 (a strongly damaged vessel) and no. 14 (a bi-conical vessel).

Work efforts were suspended until further notice due to poor weather conditions (snow, -10° C). Further excavation is anticipated to continue in the western half of Zadružniška Street, as well as along Zoranina Street in the spring.

Gregor Štibernik
Email info@muzej-menges.si

 

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